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The boyars loudly pleaded their case to the authorities of Bukovina and Galicia , arguing that the banning of slavery was a transgression against the autonomy and traditions of the province, that bondage is the appropriate state for the Roma and that it was for their own good. Many of the "new peasants" as they were called in some documents remained to work for the estates for which they were slaves, the liberation bringing little immediate change in their life.
After the eastern half of Moldavia, known as Bessarabia , was annexed by the Russian Empire in and later set up as a Bessarabia Governorate , the slave status for the Roma was kept. Slavery was legislated in the "Establishment of the organisation of the province of Bessarabia" act of , by which the Roma were a social category divided into state slaves and private slaves, which belonged to boyars, clergy or traders.
Two villages were created in Southern Bessarabia , Cair and Faraonovca now both in Ukraine by settling Roma families. However, things did not go as expected, the state of the villages "sank to deplorable levels" and their inhabitants refused to pay any taxes. Slavery, together with serfdom, was only abolished by the emancipation laws of As a consequence, the slaves became peasants, continuing to work for their former masters or joining the nomadic Roma craftsmen and musicians.
The Roma slaves were not included in the tax censuses and as such, there are no reliable statistics about them, the exception being the slaves owned by the state. Nevertheless, there were several 19th century estimates. The moral and social problems posed by Roma slavery were first acknowledged during the Age of Enlightenment , firstly by Western European visitors to the two countries.
According to Romanian Djuvara: The evolution of Romanian society and the abolition of serfdom [ when? It was only when the Phanariote regime was changed, soon after , that Romanian society began to modernise itself and various reforms were implemented see Regulamentul Organic. However, the slavery of the Roma was not considered a priority and it was ignored by most reformers.
Nevertheless, the administration in the Danubian Principalities did try to change the status of the state Romas, by attempting the sedentarization of the nomads. The regulations attempted to sedenterize the Romas and train them till the land, encouraging them to settle on private estates. By the late s, liberal and radical boyars, many of whom studied in Western Europe, particularly in Paris,  had taken the first steps toward the anti-slavery goal.
The emancipation of slaves owned by the state and Romanian Orthodox and Greek Orthodox monasteries was mentioned in the programme of the confederative conspiracy of Leonte Radu in Moldavia, giving them equal rights with the Romanians. Slavery had been abolished in most of the "civilized world" and, as such, the liberal Romanian intelligentsia viewed its slavery as a barbaric practice, with a feeling of shame.
During the s, the intellectuals began a campaign aimed at convincing the slaveholders to free their slaves. The earliest law which freed a category of slaves was in March in Wallachia, which transferred the control of the state slaves owned by the prison authority to the local authorities, leading to their sedentarizing and becoming peasants.
A year later, in , Moldavian Prince Mihail Sturdza proposed a law on the freeing of slaves owned by the church and state. During the Wallachian Revolution of , the agenda of the short-lived Provisional Government included the emancipation dezrobire of the Roma as one of the main social demands. Bolliac, Ioasaf Znagoveanu , and Petrache Poenaru , which was intended to implement the decree.
Some boyars freed their slaves without asking for compensation, while others strongly fought against the idea of abolition. Nevertheless, after the revolution was quelled by Ottoman and Imperial Russian troops, the slaves returned to their previous status. By the s, after its tenets were intensely popularized, the movement gained support from almost the whole of Romanian society, the issues of contention being the exact date of Roma freedom, and whether their owners would receive any form of compensation a measure which the abolitionists considered "immoral".
The measure was brought about by a personal tragedy: In Wallachia, only two months later, in February , a similar law was adopted by the National Assembly ,  paying a compensation of 10 galbeni for each slave, in stages over a number of years. The Romanian abolitionists debated on the future of the former slaves both before and after the laws were passed. Despite the good will of many abolitionists, the social integration of the former slaves was carried out only for a part of them, many of the Roma remaining outside the social organization of the Wallachian, Moldavian and later, Romanian society.
The social integration policies were generally left to be implemented by the local authorities. In some parts of the country, the nomadic Roma were settled in villages under the supervision of the local police, but across the country, Roma nomadism was not eliminated.
Support for the abolitionists was reflected in Romanian literature of the midth century. The issue of the Roma slavery became a theme in the literary works of various liberal and Romantic intellectuals, many of whom were active in the abolitionist camp. The topic of Roma slavery was taken up again by the arts in the early 21st century, being a subject explored by Radu Jude 's film Aferim!
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Forgot Username or Password? A freeman killing a slave was also liable for death penalty and a boyar was not allowed to kill his own slaves, but no such sentencing is attested. Radio Oltenia - Craiova. And do not forget, many girls that are listed on the site are offering travel escort services. A text message with your code has been sent to: